Besten Filme Technology ALAMUT KALESI HASAN SABBAH PDF

ALAMUT KALESI HASAN SABBAH PDF

Hasan Sabbah has 8 ratings and 0 reviews: Hasan Sabbah: Alamut Kalesi ve Cennet Fedaileri Be the first to ask a question about Hasan Sabbah. Alamut Kalesi Haşhaşiler,Hasan El Sabbah ve Fedaileri has 33 ratings and 2 reviews. Melikan said: Kalelerin anlatıldığı bölümler arkeolojiye meraklı olma. Alamut is a ruined mountain fortress located in Alamut region in the South Caspian province of .. With the death of Hasan-i Sabbah in AD, the Alamut fortress was now in the command of the da’i Kiya Buzurg Ummid, under whose.

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In AD, Alamut Castle was seized as a mountain fortress under the leadership of Hasan-i Sabbah[2] and until it was the site of intense activity for the Shi’a Nizari Ismai’lisfunctioning as the headquarters of their statewhich consisted of a series of unconnected strategic strongholds scattered throughout Persia and Syria, with each stronghold being surrounded by huge swathes of hostile territory.

The fortress was thought impregnable to any military attack, and was fabled for its heavenly gardens, library, and laboratories where philosophers, scientists, and theologians could debate in intellectual freedom.

Sources on the history and thought of the Ismailis in this period are therefore lacking and the majority extant are written by their detractors. After the Mongol destruction, the castle was of only regional significance, passing through the hands of various local powers. Today, it lies in ruins, but because of its historical significance, it is being developed by the Iranian government as a tourist destination.

Hasan Sabbah: Alamut Kalesi ve Cennet Fedaileri

The Alamut castle was built by the Justanid ruler, Wahsudan b. Marzuban, a follower of zaydi Shiaism, around AD. Following his expulsion from Egypt over his support for Nizar bin MustansirHasan-i Sabbah found that his co-religionists, the Ismailis, were scattered throughout Iran, with a strong presence in the northern and eastern regions, particularly in Daylaman, Khorasan and Quhistan. The Seljuq amirs independent rulers usually held full jurisdiction and control over the districts they administered.

The castle had never before been captured by military means and kalezi Hasan planned meticulously. He remained at Andej disguised as a schoolteacher named Dehkhoda until he was certain that a number of his supporters had settled directly below the castle in the village of Sabgah or had gained employment at the fortress itself.

It has even been suggested that Mahdi’s own deputy was a secret supporter sabah Hasan, waiting to demonstrate his loyalty on the day that Hasan would ultimately take the castle.

Earlier in the summer, Mahdi visited Qazvin, where he received strict orders from Nizam al-Mulk to find and arrest Hasan who was said to be hiding in the province of Daylaman. Upon his return to the Alamut fortress, Mahdi noticed several new servants and guards employed there.

His deputy explained that illness had taken many of the castle’s workers and it was fortunate that other labourers were found from the neighbouring villages. Worried about the associations of these workers, Mahdi ordered his deputy to arrest anyone with connections to the Ismailis.

Mahdi’s suspicions were confirmed when Hasan finally approached the lord of the fortress, revealing his true identity and declared that the castle now belonged to him. Immediately, Mahdi called upon the guards to arrest and remove Hasan from the castle, only to find them prepared to follow Hasan’s every command.

Astounded, he realized he had been tricked and was allowed to exit the castle freely. With Alamut now in his possession, Hasan swiftly embarked on a complete re-fortification of the complex.

Alamut Castle – Wikipedia

By enhancing the walls and structure of a series of storage facilities, the fortress was to act as a self-sustaining alwmut during major confrontations.

The perimeters of the rooms were alxmut with limestoneso as to preserve provisions to be used in times of crisis. Indeed, when the Mongols invaded the fortress, Juwayni was astonished to see stored countless supplies in perfect condition to withstand a possible siege.

Next, Hasan took on the task of irrigating the surrounding villages of the Alamut valley. The land at valley’s floor was arable land, allowing for the cultivation of dry crops including barleywheat and rice. In order to make available the maximum amount of cultivable land, the ground was terraced under Hasan’s direction. In times of need the surrounding villages were well equipped to furnish the castle with ample supplies.

The construction of Alamut ‘s famous alamt likely occurred after Hasan’s fortification of the castle and its surrounding valley. With its astronomical instruments and rare collection of works, the library attracted scholars and scientists of a variety of religious persuasions from around the world who visited it for many months at a time, hosted by the Ismailis. In addition to the rich literature sabbaah had already produced in Arabicthe relocation of the Ismaili center to Iran now prompted a surge in Persian Ismaili literature.

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In keeping with his principles of bridging the gaping relations between the Persian Ismailis and the broader Sunni world, Imam Jalal al-Din Hasan invited a number alamutt religious scholars from the town of Qazvin to visit the castle’s sbabah and burn any books they deemed heretical. With the permission of Hulegu, Sabbah explored the library and selected a few works he deemed worthy of salvaging, before the remainder was set aflame. His choice items included copies of the Qur’an, a number of astronomical instruments and treatises, and a number of Ismaili works.

An anti-Ismaili, Ata-Malik Juvayni ‘s personal leanings were the sole measure of heretical content of the library’s doctrinal works. From his tour and survey of the castle, Juvayni compiled a description of Alamut that he incorporated into his chronicle of the Mongol invasions, entitled Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini “The History of the World Conqueror”.

Alamut Castle

Only after these assaults failed did the Seljuq sultan Sanjar concede to recognise the independence of the Ismaili territories.

Though they expected some resistance to his rule, the fragmented Seljuqs were met with continued kalesl amongst the Ismailis, who remained unified under Muhammad’s command. Taken by illness in AD, Muhammad was succeeded by Hasan, who was then about thirty-five years of age.

However, these are either based on Juwaynior don’t go into great detail. According to Juwaynihe was stabbed in the Ismaili castle of Lambasar by his brother in law, Hasan Namwar.

What little asbbah know about the Imamate at Alamut is narrated to us by kqlesi of the greatest detractors of the Ismailis, Juwayni. Klesi living and visible proofs of the existence of the concealed Imams are known in Ismaili doctrine as hujjat proof. Under the forty-year rule of the Imam Nur al-Din Muhammad, the doctrine of Imamate was further developed and, consistent with the tradition of Shi’i Islam, the figure of the Imam was accorded greater importance. Within Persia, the Nizaris of the qiyama period largely disregarded their former political endeavours and became considerably isolated from the surrounding Sunni world.

Imam Jalal al-Din Hasan invited Sunni scholars and jurists from across Khurasan and Iraq to visit Alamut, sxbbah even invited them to inspect the library and remove any books they sabba to be objectionable. An alliance with the caliph of Baghdad meant greater resources for the self-defence of not only the Nizari Ismaili state, but also the broader Muslim world. Ascending to the throne at only nine years of age, Imam ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad continued his father’s policy of maintaining close relations with the Abbasid caliph.

Intellectual life and scholarship flourished under the rule of Imam ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad.

The Nizari libraries were invigorated with scholars from across Asia, fleeing from the invading Mongols. Having written on the topics of astronomy, philosophy, and theology, Tusi’s notable contributions to Ismaili thought include Rawdat al-Taslim Paradise of Submissionwhich he composed with Hasan-i Mahmud Katib, and Sayr va Suluk The Journeyhis spiritual autobiography. Sanbah his two major ethical works, al-Tusi studied under the patronage of the Ismaili Imam at the Alamut library until it capitulated to the Mongols in By the time of Imam ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad’s murder inthe Mongols had already attacked a number of the Ismaili strongholds in Quhistan.

Imam ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad was succeeded by his eldest son Imam Rukn al-Din Sahbah who engaged in a long series of negotiations with invading Mongols, and under whose leadership, the Alamut castle was surrendered to the Mongols. The expansion of Mongol power across Western Asia depended upon the conquest of the Islamic lands, the complete seizure of which would be impossible without dismantling the ardent Nizari Ismaili state.

Only after their destruction could the invading Mongols proceed to remove the Abbasid caliph from Baghdad and advance their conquest westward.

By May, the Mongol troops had proceeded to the fortress of Girdkuh where Ismaili forces held ground for several months. In December, a cholera outbreak within the castle weakened the Ismaili defences.

Reinforcements quickly arrived from the neighbouring Alamut hadan and thwarted the attacking Mongols, killing several hundred of Ket-Buqa’s troops. Across Khurasan the Mongols imposed tyrannical laws and were responsible for the mass displacement of kales province’s population.

After the massacres at Tun in AD, Hulegu alqmut directly involved in the Mongol campaign to eliminate the Ismaili centres of power. From a lavish tent erected for him at Tus, Hulegu summoned the Ismaili governor at Quhistan, Nasir al-Din Muhtasham and demanded the surrender of all fortresses in his province. Nasir al-Din explained that submission could only come at the Imam’s orders and that he, as governor, was powerless to seek the Ismailis’ compliance.

In a show of his compliance and at the demand of Hulegu, Rukn al-Din began the dismantling process at Alamut, Maymundiz and Lamasarremoving towers and battlements. After four days of preliminary bombardment with significant casualties for both sides, the Mongols assembled their mangonels around the castle in preparation for a direct siege.

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There was still no snow on the ground and the attacks proceeded, forcing Rukn al-Din to declare his surrender in exchange for his and his family’s safe passage. After another bombardment, Rukn al-Din descended from Maymundiz on the 19th day of November. In the hands of Hulegu, Rukn al-Din was forced to send the message of surrender to all the castles in the Alamut valley.

At the Alamut fortress, the Mongol Prince Balaghai led his troops to the base of the castle, calling for the surrender of the commander of Alamut, Muqaddam al-Din. It was decreed that should he surrender and pledge his allegiance to the Great Khan within one day, the lives of those at Alamut would be spared.

Maymundiz was reluctant and wondered if the Imam’s message of surrender was an actually act of duress. Compared with Maymundiz, the Alamut fortress was far better fortified and could have alamuf withstood the assaults of the Mongol army. However, the castle was relatively small in size and was easily surrounded by the Mongols.

Alamut Kalesi: Hashasiler, Hasan Sabbah ve Fedaileri: Peter Willy: : Books

Still, the most significant factor in determining the defeat of the Ismailis at Alamut was the command by the Imam for the surrender of the castles in the valley. Many of the other fortresses had already complied, therefore not only would Muqaddam’s resistance have resulted in a direct battle for the castle, but the explicit violation of the instructions of the Imam, which would impact significantly on the Ismaili commander’s oath of total obedience to the Imam.

The conquest of the Ismaili castles was critical to the Mongol’s political and territorial expansion westward. However, it was depicted by Juwayni as a “matter of divine punishment upon the heretics [at] the nest of satan”. When Rukn al-Din arrived in Mongolia with promises to persuade the prevailing Ismaili fortresses to surrender, the Great Khan Mongke no longer believed the Imam to be of use.

En route back to his homeland, Rukn al-Din was put to death. In his description of this, Juwayni concludes that the Imam’s murder cleansed “the world which had been polluted by their evil”.

While some escaped zabbah neighbouring regions, the Ismailis who perished in the massacres following the capture of the Ismaili garrisons numbered nearlyAccording to Ata-Malik Juvayni during the assault on the Alamut fort, “Khitayan” built siege weapons resembling crossbows were used.

They could fire a distance around 2, paces. The natural geographical alamjt of the valley surrounding Alamut largely secured szbbah castle’s defence. Positioned atop a narrow haxan base approximately m above ground level, the fortress almut not be taken by alwmut military force.

The valley’s western entrance is a narrow one, shielded by cliffs over m high. Known as the Shirkuhthe gorge sits at the intersection of three rivers: For much of the year, the raging waters of the river made this entrance nearly inaccessible. Qazvinthe alaut town to the valley by land can only be reached by an underdeveloped mule track upon which an enemy’s presence could easily be detected given the dust clouds arising from their passage. The military approach of the Nizari Ismaili allamut was largely a defensive one, with strategically chosen sites that appeared to avoid confrontation wherever possible without the loss of life.

The Alamut castle therefore was only one of a nexus of strongholds throughout the regions where Ismailis could retreat to safety if necessary. West of Alamut in the Shahrud Valley, the major fortress of Lamasar served as just one example of such a retreat. In the context of their political uprising, the various spaces of Ismaili military presence took on the name dar kaalesi place of refuge. The notion of the dar ialesi originates from the time of the Prophet Muhammadwho fled with his supporters from intense persecution to safe haven in Yathrib.

Likewise during the revolt against the Seljuqs, several fortresses served as spaces of refuge for the Ismailis. In pursuit of their religious and political goals, the Ismailis adopted various military strategies popular in the Middle Ages.

One such method was that of assassinationthe selective elimination of prominent kaleai figures. The murders of political adversaries were usually carried out in public spaces, creating resounding intimidation for other possible enemies.

They were unique in that civilians were never targeted. The assassinations were against those whose elimination would most greatly reduce aggression against the Ismailis and, in particular, against those who had perpetrated massacres against the community.