Army Alpha Examination; U.S. Army Alpha Intelligence Test The Army Alpha [5] was developed shortly after the United States entered World War I by an. Army Alpha and Army Beta intelligence testing were crucial in assessing and classifying individual soldiers during World War I. This testing. The correlation of Army Alpha with academic marks in high schools and military academies yields an appreciably higher correlation for the latter group.

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In short, southern and eastern Europeans, the Alpine and Mediterranean nations with minimal scores on the army tests, should be kept out. The persons who devise and make the tests, however, should not have a say as to what extent it should be used. The most diagnostic items were selected and items referring unnecessarily to military affairs or depending upon out-of-date information were eliminated.

Testimony by other officers can also be found in this file. But once a numerical evaluation scheme was put into place, these small differences became visible and magnified. Up until this point most mental tests had required the mediation of a trained professional—an expert was needed to administer the tests, judge the answers, and interpret the results.

Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present,6: Johnston on 3 January But it was also true of the psychologists themselves. The re- vision of the efficiency report form, along with Army Alpha and Army Beta, taught army officers to take cognizance of “intelligence,” and by the end of the war many commanding officers became quite accustomed to seeing “intelligence” as a distinct and relevant characteristic of their men, of direct value to military needs.

The reports of the camp psychological examiners had noted the phenomenon early on in the official trial: Texas, ; Daniel J. Second, differences between Army Alpha and Thorndike’s version of Army a can be traced to changes in the goals for the testing program itself. The tentative norms are based almost entirely on school and college groups, a fact evidently to be taken into consideration if the subjects to be tested are not students.

Revising the Test

Macmillan,esp. It was revised in The several intelligence letter grades used in the Army, with their al;ha and appropriate definitions are presented here:.


inteleence In many respects this event marked the beginning of the army’s active engagement in the project of psycholog- ically examining its recruits. Literacies as Multimodal Designs for Intelevence Chapter 8: While Yerkes was able to convince the army’s top echelon to institute the testing program, his success in demonstrating to rank-and-file officers and to the high command their continued need for such a pro- gram was much more equivocal.

Oral Directions were eliminated, and the test is self-administered. The Alpha tests were for draftees who could read English and the Beta for those who were illiterate or had little or no knowledge of English. Men alpja mental inferiority justifies their recommendation for development battalionspecial service organization, rejection, or discharge. Literacies’ Purposes Chapter 3: Yerkes revealed his own ambivalence toward military notions of intelligence in a letter to Thorndike dated 2 April Between 90 and responses were received, most fairly skeptical about the value of the testing program.

ASVAB | Sample Army Alpha/Beta Questions

First, it is important to note the invisible hands of American Progressivism and American eugenics throughout this story. Nearly 30 percent inteelegence the 1, men for whom statistics are available were found to be unable to “read and understand newspapers and write letters home”, and were given a special examination prepared for illiterates, the Army Beta.

Three characteristics of the process of creating and adapting scientific knowledge stand out. Science History Publications, ; and Donald N.

Afmy mentioned earlier, over 1. They had to reshape army culture, making “intelligence” inetlegence central aspect of it, before their knowledge could truly gain authority.

Indeed, a most important single word of advice from this office is— demonstrate your usefulness to the officers of your camp and thus command their interest and cooperation. Learning Civics Chapter 5: I am surprised that the correlation is so high, for in my opinion the officers’ ratings are often based upon very peculiar conceptions of what is meant by intelli- gence.

I do not mean by this that these tests are an absolute gauge, but I do mean that they are an absolute guide.

While this is by no means a unique phenomenon in the history of science, in recent years most studies of the place of persuasion in the constitution of authoritative knowledge knowledge that within a given community is deemed both valid and relevant to the concerns and activities of that community tset focused on persuasion within a community of peers.


It demands almost no writing since responses were indicated by underscoring, crossing out, or checking. Read the case of Carrie Buck to learn about sterilization laws in the United States and to consider the impact that eugenics had on laws and public policy.

Their scheme included three types of tests. Even the supporters of the introduction of intelligence testing into the army acknowledged that it was the rapid growth in size, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to rely on personal knowledge, that induced them to turn to mental tests. Using, as he claimed, ” 1 the combined opinions of a dozen psychologists as to the relative weights to be attached to the tests; 2 a rough estimate of the variabilities of the tests; and 3 a rough estimate of their inter-correlations”—in other words, typical civilian criteria—Thorndike assigned weights ranging from 1 to 3 to each of the ten tests.

The Stanford-Binet was the measuring rod for intelligence within civilian psychology. A large number of the responses are collected in group 1, file Army officers had their own ideas about intelligence, about what it meant and what its value was.

Things changed over the course of the war. In addition, two definite aims were planned in the use of all forms of testing: An estimated mental age and IQ may also be obtained from the same table.

There is only one right answer for each test item. The Career of Peyton C. While generally admy, Dorr did not recommend elimi- nating the testing program but, rather, its transfer to the Committee on Classification of Personnel, its revision with input from senior officers, and its use as an aid in the placement of recruits. How do both tests create the impression of scientific objectivity?